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Evolution
Geology
Relative time scale
The geologic time scale is a system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth's history.
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The geologic column is used to make sense of the unobservable past.
People often say that rocks exposed in the Grand Canyon offer a complete record of geologic history, however this is incorrect. Note that there are several unconformities in the Grand Canyon Stratigraphic Column that represent gaps in the record. For example the Nonconformity near the bottom represent a gap of about 1.5 to 2 billion years. Nowhere on Earth is there a complete section that shows strata deposited over the entire history of the Earth. In the past, some areas were above sea level and being eroded and other areas were below sea level where deposition was occurring. Thus, in order to develop a complete record, correlations must be undertaken in order to see how everything fits together.
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Apparently the geologic column does not exist anywhere on earth as a complete section of all history.
Paradigm paralysis
Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species" was published in 1859, and soon the simple basis of stratigraphy founded in ideas derived from catastrophism began to disintegrate as palaeontologic interest became focussed on establishing evolutionary trends and on the search for ancestors and descendants.
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Thomas Henry Huxley said that Biology takes its time from Geology. The geologic column as it is currently presented to the world by mainstream science is based on the unprovable philosophy uniformitarianism which in turn is based on the unprovable philosophy naturalism. So the explanation of the geologic column is based on the evolutionary worldview, not the other way round. This makes the whole of evolution theory a huge circular theory. See also Paradigm Paralysis.
Relative time scale
Unlike tree-ring dating -- in which each ring is a measure of 1 year's growth -- no precise rate of deposition can be determined for most of the rock layers. Therefore, the actual length of geologic time represented by any given layer is usually unknown or, at best, a matter of opinion.
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By comparison, the history of mankind is similarly organized into relative units of time. We speak of human events as occurring either B.C. or A.D. ... Geologists have done the same thing to geologic time by dividing the Earth's history into Eras -- broad spans based on the general character of life that existed during these times -- and Periods -- shorter spans based partly on evidence of major disturbances of the Earth's crust.
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The geologic time scale is a relative time scale that can say something about a sequence of events, but the geologic time scale can say nothing about the absolute ages of things. The history of mankind, spanning roughly 7 millennia, is recorded by many different human sources. The history before mankind is of course not based on observation. It is based on assumptions which are necessarily derived from philosophy.
Biostratigraphy
Using fossils to correlate from area to area, geologists have been able to work out a relative worldwide order of rock formations and to divide the rock record and geologic time...
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The ages of rocks and fossils are both not absolute. The geologic column can do no more than offer relative ages. In addition scientists make use of radiometric dating methods but those methods are calibrated against the geologic column. Everything is based on the unprovable philosophy uniformitarianism which gives evolutionists their desired time. All of it is based on the unprovable philosophy naturalism.
Sedimentation
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained, and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism.
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Superposed strata in sedimentary rocks are believed to have been formed by successive layers of sediments deposited periodically with interruptions of sedimentation. This experimental study examines possible stratification of heterogeneous sand mixtures under continuous (non periodic and non-interrupted) sedimentation.
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Detail research of Cambrian — Ordovician Sandstones of St.-Petersburg region shows that the sequence is result of single deposition cycle that develops from clay of Siversk Formation (underluing to Sablino Member) to the lower boundary of Ladoga Member (regressive phase); and from Ladoga to Tosno (and overlying Koporie shales) as transgressive phase according to changing of paleohydraulic conditions. Inner erosion surfaces were result of variations of intensity and competence of the flow rather than long interrupt of sedimentation and erosion of strata in subaerial conditions.
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The conclusions drawn from the sedimentation experiments presented on the video Drama in the Rocks are reiterated and defended. The experiments invalidate the identification of superposed rock strata with successive sedimentary layers and thus also the principles of superposition and continuity upon which the geological time-scale was founded. They shed light upon the mechanism of stratification and also show that bedding plane partings are not necessarily sedimentary hiatuses, but could be due to dessication. Thus sedimentation experiments are valuable aids in ascertaining the relationships between hydraulic conditions and stratification, and can be appropriately extrapolated to explain deposition of sedimentary rock layers.
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Evolutionists have always presented the formation of the layers of the earth as an extremely slow process in accordance with their preconceived belief in slow and gradual evolution and uniformitarianism. But it is shown by experiment that it is possible for various layers to be formed in a single event. See also Guy Berthault's website Sedimentology.
Sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. ... The sedimentary rock cover of the continents of the Earth's crust is extensive, but the total contribution of sedimentary rocks is estimated to be only 8% of the total volume of the crust. Sedimentary rocks are only a thin veneer over a crust consisting mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks are deposited in layers as strata, forming a structure called bedding.
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Sedimentary rock covers about three fourths of the land area, and most of the ocean floor. Where the earth's crust is deformed or eroded, large areas of buried sedimentary rock may be exposed. In some places, such as the mouths of rivers, the sedimentary rock is 12,000 meters thick.
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Strata of sedimentary rock are strongly linked to catastrophic floods which are necessary for their creation.
Polystrate fossils
A polystrate fossil is a fossil of a single organism (such as a tree trunk) that extends through more than one geological stratum. This term is typically applied to "fossil forests" of upright fossil tree trunks and stumps that have been found worldwide, i.e. in the Eastern United States, Eastern Canada, England, France, Germany, and Australia, typically associated with coal-bearing strata.
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If uniformitarianism were true then the tree trunks would have decayed long before any new strata would be formed to cover the tree. Therefore these strata must have been formed quickly instead of in long timespans.
Silicification
This study reveals that silicified wood can form under suitable conditions in time periods as short as tens to hundreds of years, and contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms forming silicified wood.
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Processes like silicification, of which evolutionists believe they only occur in large timespans, based on uniformitarianism, can in reality occur in much shorter timespans.